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Sunday, November 28, 2021

John Younger AKA Judge Isaac Charles Parker?


John Younger, Judge Isaac Parker or both?

Left Photo: Unconfirmed likely photo of John Younger Estimated age Late Teens to 20
Middle Photo: Confirmed photo Parker at age 22 to 27
Right Photo: Confirmed photo Parker at age 58

According to the Black Book;

Though leaning heavily towards truth, the Jury is still out for me regarding this claim...

You may share your opinion....

Request # 2

In the following photo: (Most of the Dalton Brothers included)

According to history, all of these men are brothers but two.... One is a suspect brother and one is the father of the others, one is also suspect as being the same as one of the other photos... Which two would you suspect being the same person if any?

Request #3

In the following photo I am very anxious to discover the identity of the two individuals in the photo

Subject #1 Subject #2

I have reason to believe that these two individuals above "MAY" be present in the following photo set of siblings...

Subject #1 (Inserted at Bottom Center)

I suspect the man in the oval picture is # 2 (Top second from let) and # 9 (Bottom 2nd from right) are one and the same...

What do you think?
Post your answer on Face Book please

Subject # 2 (Again Inserted at Bottom center)

I suspect the man in the oval picture as possibly being # 4 top row, or #7 bottom row, but likely not in the photo at all

What do you think?
Post your answer on Face Book please

Thursday, November 25, 2021

Lost and Found City of the 7 Foot Tall People


In almost every publication since the so called discovery of Tontonteac, this is the image that has been instilled into the minds of the people so that they do not realize the magnitude of the city known long before Jedediah Smith who is said to have made the discovery

Just imagine hiking through the forest exploring the possibilities of antiquity, wandering the desert terrain in search of things of the past or even traveling through the rural area near a populated area, and something catches your eye, something that causes you to realize that what you are looking at cannot be, or could it be? how has this existed for so long without being discovered or noticed… but deep within, you know the answer…

Many amazing things have been discovered on this land since the last flow of Europeans came to this land, amazing histories remain untold from times before… only hints found in the documented histories be it former explorers, Indian legends and sometime just a small notation in some academic work of the past, and these things it is a wonder that they to have not been swept under the rug by those who operate under the thumb of Smithsonian with their proclaimed purpose of  The increase and diffusion of knowledge, and yet since the beginning, have done nothing but give the illusion of knowledge promoting delusion in the carefully orchestrated history we have been fed since our beginning. But should we blame them? Or have we brought this delusion upon ourselves through our own ignorance as we simply would not have the truth?... 

There is yet to be discovered across this land, evidence or prior occupation of culture after culture some of which even if the evidence comes into the open, a majority will still refuse to believe. Imagine believing you have found an ancient city, buried under the refuse of some catastrophic event of the past… what to do next? Or should you? Because again within you, you know no one is going to believe this unless steps are taken to prove its existence and when that step is taken, Smithsonian steps in to go to great lengths to hide the truth, it is easier to promote and build a reservoir to cover the truth, than to go to the great efforts to hide an entire civilization from knowledge… a question I am not certain I will ever find the answer to…. What the hell are they afraid of? 

Most of us have heard of the discovery made in the Grand Canyon in 1909, this discovery as amazing as it was has been nothing but bastardized ever since, there were NO DAMNED EGYPTIANS! The irresponsible reporting NOW DAYS is out of control, but the efforts to hide the discovery continue even to this day with “their” last feeble attempt to hide evidence occurring in 2008 an attempt which nearly breached the dam by erosion unexpected in the flood tunnels, a dam that was built to hide even more upstream. but they didn’t tell you about any of that did they? After touting their success in restoring the sandbars in the Grand Canyon, it was and is to this day obvious that it  made no difference what so ever


From the USGS web site, so It must be true!

The Grand Canyon is a bit closer to how it was before one of the country’s largest dams was installed upstream. Three years of releasing water from Glen Canyon Dam to generate controlled floods has resulted in rebuilding sandbars in the Grand Canyon, according to a new USGS article published in Eos, the daily Earth and space science website published by the American Geophysical Union. These simulated floods redistribute sand and mud, which helps develop this critical feature.

Sandbars are an important part of the Colorado River ecosystem. They provide habitat for native and endangered fish, sand that supports vegetation and helps protect archeological sites, and the flat ground provides great camping spots under the stars.

"This study demonstrates the advantages of a robust science program dedicated to understanding the unique resources of the Grand Canyon," said Principal Assistant Secretary for Water and Science Jennifer Gimbel. "These findings will help inform decisions that benefit the Grand Canyon, as well as the millions of Americans who rely on this treasured watershed for recreation, water and power."


Helps protect archeology sites? Please tell us…. How?

Camping spots? As if there isn’t enough? Why the several restrictions on going ashore 

The following photos are a comparison in one case in the Grand Canyon which clearly shows NO change at all as a result of the flooding. These photos are representative however choose any sand bar in on the river and compare, after following the river comparing for nearly 100 miles, I found no difference what so ever. The only goal of this so called controlled flooding was to wash down and hide many evidences of a former city, to this day there are locations along the river where in it is strictly said you cannot put ashore… why? With river rafting becoming increasingly popular, something had to be done to keep the remaining evidences from being found.


Typical throughout the Grand Canyon



2017 just 9 years after the flooding

Another example of a major discovery quickly covered up and likely surpassed the NON Egyptian discovery in 1909, was Pueblo Grande of Nevada as they call it today, believed to have been first discovered in 1827 by Jedediah Smith but attention was finally brought to it in 1924 when it became very apparent as to the controversy this site was going to create. Smithsonian apparently jumped on the phone with Army Core of Engineers and plans were made to build a reservoir to hide the vastness of the ruins… oh ya,  and to provide water for the Californians. FIVE MILES of this principle city of the past was covered up figuratively and literally… This city was KNOWN long before Jedediah Smith in fact he likely had prior knowledge from the very maps the Spanish were using and where did the Spanish gain knowledge of them? 

Tontonteac was its most recent name before it was given the name of Pueblo Grande of Nevada. The use of the word Pueblo is to me, another way of saying Romans or Greek. It was obvious it was a city built upon city after city, it is suspect it was or is, the city of Anahuac mentioned by the Aztecs as the first and original city built upon this land when they first came to this continent across the west sea, it it would be several layers down under several other cities built by other cultures. According to Harrington, the never got to the bottom,.

Who can deny that Pueblo Grande of Nevada isn’t the same city marked on numerous maps as the city of Tontonteac? What about Pueblo Grande of Arizona as the same city noted as the city of Marata? What about all the other notations on the many maps? If there were cities found at these two locations what of the other locations? What about Axa, Chuco, Tignus, Ceoula or Cibola and the 7 unnamed cities? 

Following is the news article that appeared on no less than 14 newspapers around the country in April of 1925, 9 years prior to the completion of the dam that would hide the vastness of the discovery.


Mark Raymond Harrington

I love they way the writer keeps making Egyptian references, it won’t be long before the lazy reader and irresponsible media are proclaiming ANOTHER Egyptian City Found!


In many publication now it is said that the people were small.

Below are some of the MANY maps of the 15th through 17th century maps showing these cities, what of all the others on these maps and even those not named or shown? What of the many mound cities that were discovered in Utah just like those of the Mississippi Mound Builders? What? You never heard of them? The most famous, or should I say use to be was found in Parowan Utah with it huge platform mound like Cahokia, excavated IN PART by Neil M. Judd and then left to the local farmers to plow under.


Old maps showing former city locations

Other possible cities not indicated on these maps include one possible location high in the mountains near Utah county, one, maybe even two in the rural areas of Sanpete Valley, one rumored city in the Henry Mountains and one or even two under well known reservoirs. It would seem building reservoirs is a quick way to hide something and avoids a lot of questions, also creating a scapegoat.

Thursday, November 11, 2021

Aztec Navigation Glyph

 Original Post March 9th 2015

Formerly referred to as the water glyph and key glyph

This glyph was first known as the Water Glyph based on the theory that it pointed out water sources.

Are we to believe that these 3 glyphs below point out the same water source they are all 3 pointing at? Art we to believe that at one time when this small basin had water in it that the Indians were just to dammed stupid to know it was water until they examined the three glyphs and ignoring the river below? I don't think so... but believe it or not, s
ome have theorized even stranger things.

After these glyphs had the name water glyphs, the phrase of key glyph was created simply because they looked like a type of key, but more importantly it was very obvious they simply are not water glyphs.

However after investigations and study of near 150 sites scattered throughout the regions with more than 250 known sites... but for the last decade, due to extensive trial and error, study and documenting these sites, it has become clear to me and many others, that these glyphs are navigational in purpose. This hypothesis would later be confirmed by a Ute Indian who showed me in part how they were used, explaining to me, "This is how we lay out our corals, it comes from an ancient form of navigation once practiced by our ancestors, but we have forgotten how it is done." With his help and many others over the years, we believe we now understand the use of these. But now the question beckons, What are they leading to and from? The answer to this will come soon enough, but not today. In the meantime, let your imagination run away with you. But not to far, as the places and things these glyphs were left for, hundreds of years ago to lead them back to...  may be closer than you think.....

Today we call them Aztec Navigation Glyphs.
The Navigation Glyphs consist of four parts; the first main dot which we call the Sun Dot and is always at the end of the long line. The second dot often present is identified as the Venus dot, used to indicate the season of the year and which clearly shows the positioning of Venus on the horizon at sunset. The circle represents the sky or better said, the complete round of the horizon, and the long tail which represents "Path" and in this case, the path of the sun, we also refer to it as the sunset baseline. 

The ancients responsible for these glyphs knew the destructive power the sun has on the elements, especially the sandstone with standing water, and in addition to the meaning attributed, due to the standing water, the long tail also had a purpose of providing drainage to the glyph. You will notice if you have seen many of them, that they almost always have the long tail which slopes gradually away from the circle, with exception of those that have for whatever reason shifted for some cause. I have observed dozens where in the rock they are found in, has shifted and as a result the glyph not able to drain, and in these cases, the glyph is in very bad shape.

"The Aztec Navigation Glyph"

The Aztec Navigation Glyph as we now call it, is called many other things and or thought to be other things, such as a water glyph used to locate water, sacrificial blood letting altars, eagle traps and even the remains of an olive press. Most of these ideas I can see how one would come up with this but the bottom line is, none of them hold water. Many questions need to be resolved concerning them and one in particular that I feel not many are in a position to analyze is, do they conform with LaVan Martineau’s theory? One of theories comes close and the creator has obviously done a little research on the subject but I am going to bring clarification to them and show you what they are really all about.

A not so typical Glyph

The glyph in the previous photo is found with two others surrounding a small occasional pool which is most of the time, dry. Each of the 3 glyphs found at this site has its tail as we sometimes call it, pointing at the pool in three different directions. Is it possible the Natives were so stupid that they needed to climb a 1000 foot bluff leaving the creek bank they were following, to find a small pool of water that they could not be sure that it was water they were looking at until they saw the three glyphs pointing at it before they knew it was water? I don’t think so.

If it was a sacrificial blood letting alter, some one please explain to me who it was that did Blood Letting to the tune of needing a collection system this large for its purpose? Do these people know what a blood letting ritual is? They didn't cut off their arm or leg for this purpose it was a simple piercing in which only enough blood was acquired to collect on a small paper like substance to be burned. The act of burning the sacrificed blood symbolized the transference of the offering to the gods via its transformation into the rising smoke. The frequency at some of the sites where these are found can exceed 10 within 100 yards distance. For those that still believe this was some sacrificial related thing, the Aztec sacrifices pertaining to cutting out the heart and the flaying of men did not start until long after the Aztecs had left their homeland, Aztlan, in fact near 300 years after.

These glyphs are found in a relatively small area comparatively speaking. From St. George, (some say Nevada) to Johnsons Canyon. 
Today, the furthest North and almost west location is believe it or not, near Cedar City Utah. The furthest west is located at the Littlefield I-15 Exit heading south to Las Vegas. It is suspect according to the Aztec record that the first Navigation glyph heading to the North is found on a hill 40 miles North of Mexico City, we hope someday to find someone in the area to verify it's existence.

 I myself have photographed and acquire gps locations on about 120 of the Aztec glyphs. They are always found horizontal UNLESS the rock it is found on has broken off and tilted, they are always in an elevation advantage point for viewing the horizon and when found in large groups; seem to be some what random within the confined area. They are about 4 feet in length with the often oval shape circle at about 18 inches in diameter.

The glyphs are without a doubt, Navigational in purpose but the tail does NOT point to any intended target, in order to discover its hidden intended direction one has to learn how to Navigate the glyph, other wise, why didn't they just put an arrow on the rock with the symbol for water? Why is it an encrypted glyph as it has long been suspect. Although I have explained the way these glyphs were used and I am not shy about showing some one, I will not expand upon in it here in full detail but will much of it. But I will explain somewhat how I learned how to use them and a bit about how to use them.

In about 2001 I took a Ute friend of mine named Paul Tabbee with me to the Arizona strip to document some newly discovered Aztec glyphs. When he first laid eyes on his first Aztec glyph he remained silent. He continued this not saying a word about them the whole day after seeing near a dozen of them. On one of the last ones that day he broke his silence regarding the glyphs and said that they reminded him of the way the Ute (Descendants of the Aztec), lay out their corals and then explained it to me. As he drew it out in the sand he explained that this comes from an ancient form of navigation that his people use to use, but that they had forgotten how it works. What he explained to me was the importance of a consistent base line that had to be present, something on the horizon that was consistent. After seeing his sketch on the ground which looked just like a Aztec glyph, I knew we had it. I admit however it took me a few days to let the base to line sink in as to how it was applied and it wasn’t until I returned home that I figured it out.

The answer to the base line was the Sunset, but this in and of itself was a slight problem knowing there are 3 distinct key sunset locations, fall/spring, winter and summer, of which was intended? Now, let me back up a bit, as with all glyphs I have encountered I have discovered the key to unlocking the mystery of a given panel, was to learn the subject of the panel, this enables you to do what I call a breakdown of the panel and as a result you can confirm or deny the suspect subject by attributing to correct base meaning of each symbol within the glyph. If it all comes together smoothly there is a high probability you are on the right track and if not, you best be looking for another possible subject.

Now applying the principles of LaVan Martineau and the break down process developed by myself, we can now analyze the possibility. In order to navigate using this glyph there are certain things that are needed. A Consistent base line, A Horizon, and in order to cast a shadow, we need certain positioning of the sun and a certain easily made tool to apply the principles, but how do you navigate 360 degrees by using a shadow? That will come.
Here are the base meanings attributed by LaVan and myself.

Now that we have the breakdown with the base meaning, let’s add in the derivative words of the base meanings using the suspect subject of Navigation.

In this picture above we find the best derivative word for the base meaning according to the subject and the puzzle begins to unfold. The easiest way to show how this works is to simply show someone how to do it. But that’s not likely going to happen for all so in a nut shell let’s look at the following images for explanation. Each portion of the glyph which is a combination of symbols now has its identification as it relates to navigation.

Now that we understand the basics of this Glyph lets begin the explanation. In the following image we find a glyph with the fall position dot, noonday sun dot and the sunset base line carved at 218 degrees. Place a 3 foot pole in the sun dot vertical and record the shadow location of 360 degrees.

Now using your own home built protractor stick using a couple of rulers with a hole drilled in them at the end and secured with a wing nut, adjust it to lay down in the sunset base line and the recorded shadow location lining it up and secure.

Then rotate the Shadow and Baseline pole so the baseline pole is pointing to the intended sunset, if the pole does not move changing the angle, the shadow pole will now be pointing in the intended direction of travel.

Now why would the Aztec assuming they are the one who made these, encode them so that only they would understand them?

The Aztec have had enemies since their conception and even long before they were known as such, pathways leading to things of a religious or otherwise nature may have been sacred enough to them as to not publicize where these things or places may be. It just makes sense regardless. However the question that most pondered by myself is why are these glyphs found in such a high concentration in a relatively small geographical area comparatively speaking if navigational in purpose? Others with singular locations commonly found at river junctions? These questions should possibly remain a mystery simply because there are some among the public that just don’t need to know.

I have known not only through reading but suspected in the past that the Aztec no doubt had a hieroglyph in which they used to navigate to and from key places, and one would no doubt be the caves in which they emerged and had lived for so long. If this hypothesis were true, then it would seem that there would be a trail of these glyphs leading away from the known general area in which they are found. At this time that area would be considered as being from the east at about Johnsons Canyon which is east to Kanab, west to the area of St. George, North to either Gooseberry plateau to the west or Kanab Canyon more so to the east and southerly I have documented them south of Colorado City as far as the Yellowstone Mesa.

What I have been on the lookout for over the years is anything stemming away from and outside of what we can only guess as the general area. The reason for this is, if these are navigational in purpose and according to the hypothesis were used to travel back and forth, then there must be a trail or even two leading away from this general area. The Yellowstone Mesa location almost insinuates this but it just isn’t far enough removed from the general area in which the majorities are found. Finding one further south from Yellowstone and isolated, would certainly add credence to one of the suspect trails leading to or away from the area.

Somewhat recent, a friend contacted me and told me of some new glyphs that had been found, and I had discovered through a report I had read that one had been found at Marble Canyon where in I would fully expect to find one, but I would not suspect any others stemming from that location with one small exception. Now if my suspicions are correct and this location at Marble canyon does exist, then I would suspect it as being an end location and thus, a trail of them must be leading to or away from this location and this is what my friend has brought to my attention.

From the Marble canyon location and about 120 miles as a crow flies, we find 3 more of these Aztec glyphs along the Little Colorado where I have suspected for a long time they would be found. Between the junction of the Little Colorado and the Colorado to Winslow Arizona and along the Colorado would be a great place to look as there is no doubt additional Glyphs in between.

I am also informed that another 40 miles to the South East from Winslow near Holbrook and along the Little Colorado is found a single Aztec Navigation Glyph. It would seem a trail is being established here. No sooner than I expanded upon this speculating as to where the possible trail may go from this southern location, another friend tells me two glyphs are found in Texas, although we do not currently know exactly where these are located, I would bet they are found along the Rio Grand at the western border of Texas.

One might wonder why 3 are found at this southern location of Winslow Arizona. It is suspect that one leads to the western trail or crossing of the Grand Canyon via Flagstaff, and one leads northward to an important feature or two near Marble Canyon or the old crossing just beyond, and the third, will instruct the traveler to the south eastern location found 40 miles away or one in between. In other words, the third is leading back to Mexico. This location of 3 is no doubt a junction of trails. I can’t wait to prove or disprove this hypothesis.

Tuesday, November 9, 2021

Mammoth, Mastodon and Rhinoceros pictographs?


Mammoth, Mastodon and Rhinoceros pictographs?


To the Reader... My apologies for my absence I have been very busy getting settled in and preparing for the winter months, something I have never really had to deal with.

Curelom and Cummom?

This is actually an old subject that has been argued many times before... but... 

25 years ago or so, I visited a site near Ferron Utah, while investigating other petroglyphs in the area, I stumbled across some very curious pictographs. Why hasn’t anyone mentioned these I thought, they were located where any explorer of the Native glyphs would no doubt find them.

Speaking with one of the locals not long after, I inquired about them, he told me, they have been there as long as he could remember and his grandfather knew of them, "they are not modern as they say!"Who is they” I asked. He explained to me that the archaeologist that had visited the site and other sites in the past and in that area were adamant that they must be modern, because the Mastodon, Mammoth and Rhinoceros  died out some 14 to 10,000 years ago, and they said the Rhinoceros likely never lived on this continent. “Hell! They found that Mammoth up there at the Huntington reservoir not 30 miles from here back in the 80’s” he exclaimed…  How is it possible that someone within the last 1000 to 1500 years, (suspect age of pictographs if authentic) was able to create such accurate pictograph renditions if they had never seen one? Therefore they must be modern… This is the typical thinking or the lack thereof… created by the curriculum of Smithsonian where in some put so much faith in their peers, that none dare question it, beside, when you question the curriculum of Smithsonian after receiving your license to steal and funding, , they threaten to take away that  funding or license.  I don’t suppose they ever considered that the narrative is what is incorrect, maybe their radio carbon dating theory? 

I’m going to step out on a limb here and call a BS… do I need to define that? Why in gods name would someone in the past sneak up the canyon and  using an unknown technique, and paint a Mammoth, Mastodon and a Woolly Rhinoceros of all things on the canyon wall?… Hell why stop there, let's paint a Tyrannosaurus Rex as well...  Was it someone involved in the discovery at Huntington Reservoir back in the 80's? Well not according to the locals, so who would do this and why? I find absolutely no viable motive. 

So why haven’t the archaeologist teams broke out the forensics side of archaeology, and tested the paint technique, I mean… why not find the truth? What a novel idea! Well if that suggestion were to get back to the heads of Smithsonian, I suspect the glyphs would disappear, but that may have already happened. About 10 years ago the glyphs pictures came up on a socialistic media page, and there was quite a stink about them, they’re real! they’re fake! they cried... both sides speaking from an empty bowl of merit…  someone said they were gone! Others say they are still there, but I have yet to go and see for myself. 

What the truth is behind these glyphs may never be known, but based on the facts, stories, past and current actions of the Smithsonian puppets, (No offense intended to my Academic friends, If your name was not called, don’t raise your hand) I think science needs to decommission Smithsonian and re-establish their original intended purpose which was in finding the absolute truth, at least it was before the two sons of Methodist ministers took it over for their own delusional purpose.

I ADMIT I am prejudiced in this case and leaning heavily on authenticity… if this is the case, some severe changes need to be made…

D-Stretch Images

Thursday, October 7, 2021

Abacus nuc Granada, Monetzuma city?

I have sought after the elusive city of Abacus nuc Granada, shown on several old 14th, 15th and 16th Century maps, it was known as their "Capital City" but whose Capital city? in most cases the city is shown on the North side of the Grand Canyon, this city is believed to have been built as early as 100 AD by Indio Greeks, the precursor of the Roman Colonies.

Due to an old document that came my way several years ago I and my colleagues have searched for what we believe "may" be connected to this ancient city. Not many years ago my friend discovered what is no doubt 300 acres of irrigation canals, the problem is, we cant find the ruins of a city to go with it. We did however notice that it appears as on one of the canals, it appears the lava when it was flowing flowed into one of the canals, this has not yet been confirmed. Is it possible we have another Pompey?

This occurrence has led me to believe and in addition to much other evidence, that the lava flowed in this place in about 900 AD coinciding with several other sources. It has since come to our attention that through certain recent geologic studies in that area, geologist have discovered pottery in the lava and have determined that the lave was flowing about 1000 years ago… Imagine that… However in our search, one cannot discount other possibilities, two of the many maps show Abacus nuc Granada as being on the south side of the Grand Canyon. Being on the south side would certainly not take away from the irrigation canals, because they certainly are present, but the following story is suspiciously coincidental and must of course be investigated as a profound possibility.

The Story of Montezuma City in 1858

An Apache chief named Esconolea, having no knowledge of the 1924 discovery of the buried Tuscon lead crosses or the story told within them, believed in the  mid nineteenth century on the basis of a tradition handed down from father to son over an indeterminate time, of the same details found written upon the artifacts. He could also unerringly locate the rung valley of the ruined city spoken of within, or at least one of the cities....

A genial, responsible, 22 year old Iowan adventurer, James H. Tevis, who had done a year's hitch in Central America with the filibuster William Walker, took charge of the Butterfield Overland Mail station at Apache Pass in 1858. The stone corralled station stood about halfway, or six miles along the precarious road of the 5115foot Pass in southeast Arizona. Captain Tevis made a daily burro trip with two ten gallon kegs to a spring about a quarter of a mile east of the station. (It was on a little strip of tableland about 300 yards beyond this spring that Fort Bowie was established in 1862.) The first Apache word Tevis heard happened to be the Indians' name for him: Sandaisy ("Mule"). These were Chiricahua Apaches, whose principal chief, young six foot Cochise, who commanded 700 warriors, later became notorious. The second chief, Old Jack, commanded 500 warriors, about 200 of whom went off and warred with Mexicans in the Sierra Madres every winter. The third, also an aged chief, Esconolea, commanded somewhat over 300. His brother was medicine chief of the whole Chiricahua Apache tribe. With all my hatred for the Indians," said Tevis, "I had no other feeling but that of affection for Esconolea, and never have I met a man in all my life who deserved affection from me so fully as he."

Old Jack's young warriors, wearing red headbands, had just returned from Sonora in the spring of 1858 when Tevis one day descried them from the top of a divide reinforcing a line of about 200 warriors, thus giving a decided advantage against Esconolea's force drawn up opposite. When the battle joined with a whoop, Tevis charged down through the red bands firing his six shooters, ending up amidst Esconolea's men. Esconolea gave him a good Mexican hug saying "Ushah slonk" (Very good). Tevis had already pleased Esconolea by giving a girl of his tribe two sacks of corn on the water burro during the severe December of 1857 while the men were away on their new

moon foray to Sonora. Esconolea's tribal camp lay but a half mile from the stage station. He undertook, that winter, to teach Tevis Apache. Now, after the battle on the divide, Tevis acquired a new name: Cheese Go-ulee ("White Chief"). After Jack in some disgrace from not prevailing on the field pulled his division of the tribe southeast to Laguna de Guzman in northern Chihuahua, Esconolea rarely left Tevis by day except when on campaign in Sonora, determined to verse him in the Apache tradition. Thus Tevis could record:

The Apaches say that, at one time, they were a great war tribe, but that a great army invaded their country with such terrible war implements that their people were killed before their arrows could reach the enemy.

Those who did reach close enough for hand to hand fighting could not match the invaders' broad blade hatchets and broke their lances on the invaders' shields.

Even though the Apaches numbered twenty to one, the enemy was successful in every engagement, and kept driving them north. Behind this vast army came a great number of people in charge of priests. They settled along all the watercourses, building forts and churches. In the mountains they also built furnaces and melted the rocks like water. Finally, the Apaches had to succumb to the tyranny of the invaders, and they were no better than slaves, for warriors, squaws, and children worked for them. 

Esconolea said that about ten days' journey northwest of Apache Pass lay an abundantly timbered valley somewhat like a tableland, many miles long and very wide, with a fine stream.

Here a large city was founded. Pack trains of hundreds of animals would come and go every few days. This went on for years, and the Apaches became more burdened, until secretly they began planning their release. 

At last they attacked and massacred every one of the foreigners caught outside the city, halted their farming, drove their livestock away, and starved the surrounded stronghold into submission in about a year. Those then still alive were easily captured and, from that time to Esconolea's narration, the Apaches had resumed sole occupancy of the former foreign empire. Esconolea did not call Empire their capital or Rhoda but he called it Montezuma City. Tevis assumed that the invaders had entered Arizona from the Pacific coast of Mexico and inquired if the vicinity of Guaymas, halfway up the Gulf of California, might have been the landfall. No, a great many miles farther west, Esconolea replied, through what was known at the time he was speaking as Yaqui country. The Rio Yaqui in fact stretches perpendicular to Guaymas east of that port and flows into Guaymas Bay southeast of it. If Esconolea, who was not ignorant of Sonora, did not mean east, he had in mind a point near the mouth of the Colorado.

I told Esconolea I did not think such an account was to be found in history, and he asked me what history was, and how old my country was. He laughed.

Tevis said there were churches still standing in Old and New Mexico that were over 300 years old, so something must be left of the city Esconolea described. Esconolea consented to lead him to it.

They took horses a few days afterward for about ten days northwest. Late the ninth day they camped at the foot of a large mountain near a magnificent spring which spilled into a little valley where an old acequia (primitive irrigation ditch) ran which had once carried spring water out over the valley. If this had been Montezuma Well on Wet Beaver Creek southeast of Cottonwood, Tevis 'would have mentioned the numerous ruins still visible atop the well, and the cliff type dwellings between the water and the rim of the deep cenote. Esconolea said at the spring campsite that the mountain ahead was the last they would have to climb; just over the top lay Montezuma City

It was very hard the first three hours of the early morning, Tevis said, but through a thick growth of pines they ascended to an old trail that rose more gradually. They reached the summit about 2 p.m. overlooking a wooded tableland valley with a fair stream running through it, just as Esconolea had described; "and there, just a short distance into the valley, lay Montezuma City." 

After we had ridden about a mile, we began to pass a great number of mounds of various sizes, which lasted until we reached the stream, where we camped. Large herds of elk and deer could be seen on either side, and wild turkeys everywhere. The stream was filled with mountain trout. Here we spent two days, riding over the valley, examining mounds which extended for miles on both sides of the stream. The courses of the acequias were quite discernible. Esconolea took me to a very large mound, where he said the commander had lived; and as we went around the old crumbled walls, we found old pottery and copper implements, and some articles which resembled helmets and breastplates. While I was examining these things, old Esconolea watched me very intently and said, "Ton, oo, ga," or "What is the name of it?" I explained to him why their arrows and lances had no effect upon the invaders of their country. I told him that it was a metal covering which even the balls of a rifle could not penetrate, much less arrows. Inside these ruins were signs everywhere of a once populous city. . . .It was certainly one of the loveliest valleys I had ever seen. . . .

Tevis asked Esconolea why his tribe did not live here. Aghast, he said this was sacred ground, which the Great Spirit forbade their living on. 

Esconolea stated that the stream running through Montezuma City flowed into the TooIntza ("Large Waters"), i.e. the Colorado; by which Tevis judged the valley lay east of the Colorado. Through a low place atop a mountain range extending about eight to ten miles wide east and west as far as the eye could see, Esconolea said one would find a mountain as large as the one the two had just come up. Tevis estimated from the distance they had traveled that it would stand between 3 and 400 miles northwest of what is today the town of Bowie just above the north entrance to Apache Pass. (San Francisco Peak, above Flagstaff?) While gazing north, Esconolea went on to describe the Grand Canyon, which he called Terustooshodo ("Bad Mountains"), the walls perpendicular on either side of the river, which had cut its way through the bad mountains. He said he had frequently heard his people say that the invaders had an underground passage through the Grand Canyon but that he had never found it. 

He and Tevis took the same trail back except for not turning off at the thicket of pines." On their left they could see what they took to be old shafts made by the Jesuits (sic), and a few miles farther on the remains of an old reduction works. Each day, they kept passing old abandoned shafts, the last ones between the San Francisco and Gila Rivers, about twelve miles from their confluence.

This 700 mile or so round trip took place apparently in the summer or fall of 1858. In 1859 Tevis opened a trading post at the pass station but in 1860 joined the Confederate forces at MesillaNew Mexico, and was hospitalized for wounds at HempsteadTexas when mustered out. He married on Christmas Eve 1866 in St. Louis. Ten years later he transferred a general store he had started in East St. Louis to Empire, Kansas and, in 1880, via AustinTexas to a site fourteen miles north of Fort Bowie and five miles from the Chiricahua foothills. Thus he founded Tevis town, which in 1912 was renamed Bowie. His wife, son, and five daughters joined him around two years later by way of the just opened Southern Pacific Railroad. He shortly enlarged his store to a hotel. He had lost the diaries he had kept during the '50s but, with the help of his daughter Belle, completed his book of the Arizona years 185760 in 1886. While he was working as commissary of a mining and milling company in Virginia Chief Canyon in 1902, an old squaw of perhaps ninety showed him a silver watchcase he had given her in 1858. Esconolea had died at some undisclosed year at the San Carlos Reservation well to the north of Apache Pass. Tevis died at Tucson in 1905 at seventy, leaving his book manuscript along with many letters and diaries. Belle and another daughter, Minnie, prepared the book (Arizona in the '50's) for its publication by the University of New Mexico in 1954. Tevis and his wife Emma, who died seven weeks after him, are buried in the Bowie cemetery.