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Thursday, April 27, 2017

The Hidden Treasures of Nueva España PART 5

Editing of Part 5 by
Tracy Gardner    

Ok, so, why were these people coming here? Meaning, why in the 1500’s and for the next 200 years were the French and the Spanish apparently looking for this elusive lake Copala?

Some of the readers may find the following as vague, but this I cannot help, as we must face the facts, there is a large population out there, and quite frankly, the majority does not need to know of the finer details.

The following is not placed here as a matter of fact, it is and should be considered as a hypothesis. Some in the academic world would likely say it is ridiculous, speculative and some may even bark the words “profoundly subjective!”  But this is primarily because they will not see the evidences that corroborate the hypothesis and this because I will not give the evidences here, and they even on their best day would never think to look for them. I could place the evidences IN THEIR HANDS, and they still would not believe… because they have no belief.


Something of the ancient past has drawn many cultures to this land, and it would seem with some distractions of potential wealth, or should we just go with greed?  The target area seams to be a place the Aztec refer to as Aztlan, others have called it by slight phonetic differences such as King Arthur’s said to be, “Mythical” Avalon, and Plato’s Atlan-tis, did I spell that correctly?. What is this place and what is it about it that draws the people from ancient times to seek for it? Why is so much emphasis placed on the Aztec? Well if anyone would take the time to read their history one might find that in the Aztec history, there are accounts of many people coming to this land. Although Aztec is not their very ancient name, the people who make up the Aztec people have been here since the land was first inhabited since the great flood, yes the one mentioned in the Bible. These people have not only been around since the beginning, but they are also a make up, a mixture, of nearly all those who have visited this land in the last 4500 years when man first set foot on this land around 2400 BC, which land had been swept clean about 300 years prior.


The origins of this seeming mythical place may begin as far back as the beginning of mankind, no, I do not mean the monkeys whom some believe they are descended from, maybe they are, but I am Adamic Man. I’m talking about those people of the Bible known as Adam and Eve who originated on this planet in what was known as the Garden of Eden.

There are many hypotheses of where this garden was, but my belief, based on intensive study and research of 30 years, and not due to some orthodox belief, places its location here in the west. My efforts certainly do not make me correct, but my effort and evidences certainly make it more plausible than the orthodox belief. I never could get used to doing or believing something, just because the majority is doing it or believes it… In fact I have found that whatever it is the majority believes or does, is likely the wrong thing.

Now although I suspect it pertains to another land, other than a Promised Land, “a land of Milk and Honey”, there is an odd incident that occurs in Numbers 13 wherein Moses sends out “Spies” to the land of “Canaan”. I will leave it to the reader to ponder, but at this time I suspect this land of Canaan in which Moses sent his spies, is not the Promised Land, the land “flowing with milk and honey". The Israelites were also given a chunk of desert along the west shores of the Mediterranean, I must be honest however, my play of words suggests that God gave them a wasteland, if truth be known, in the days it was given, Jerusalem and its surrounding area was a beautiful tropical land. What happened?


King David is said to have traveled to this Land of Promise before his son Solomon, or should I say King Hyrum who was sent by Solomon, to a place many have speculated about. We don’t have much by way of King David but his son Solomon gives a fair account which has had many of the academic world looking in Africa of all places, Why? Lets just say we do not consider the same books… In the first book of Kings, Hyrum returns from this land called Ophir, and immediately the story of the Queen of Sheba begins….

I have a belief, that man has been circumnavigating the globe at least since the first boat was built as recorded in the days of Noah. However, the place wherein King Hyrum, who was the King of Tyre, went and returned from and the place where in Hyrum and his men taught the servants of the Queen of Sheba concerning King Solomon, was here in the west. No sooner than Hyrum returns from Ophir is the story of the Queen of Sheba told, more likely the Queen of Shem-bha or Shem-Bahala, (Children of Shem). Now we begin to understand how the great country of China, with the Tibetans has lost one of its greatest, now mythical, cities; Shambhala. Why can’t they find it? Because it isn’t there…


However if the Mahayana Buddhist would think a bit, specifically of the Mother of Buddha, Maya… they just might find this mythical city of Shem Bhala, at the place wherein the name is given to the people of Maya, the Mayan people, yes, those of the Yucatan. What does this mean? It means the Queen of Sheba, who was a Queen of India, the queen of those who had migrated to the Americas and had colonized it long before Hyrums visit, had heard of Solomon through her servants who met Hyrum and his men as they explored the regions of this mythical place that would later be called Aztlan. The evidences of this Hindu people in place names are all over the Americas and even in their religion from which Buddhism was derived, is rooted in the Aztec religion, and has left its mark upon the Hopi, Navajo, Apache and others. Some say it is purely coincidental that the story of Sheba occurs right after Hyrum’s return, but how would they explain the two verses of Chapter 10, 11 and 12 of 1st Kings concerning Hyrum’s journey being interjected right in the middle of the story of Sheba? Another strange coincident I’m sure.

Was the Queen of Sheba, Maya? Mother of Solomon’s son? Or was she the wife of Buddha? He is known for his immense wisdom, beyond any other man… other than one- Solomon. I didn’t loose you there did I?

If the foregoing implications have any merit, the entire foundation of Hinduism and  Buddhism, its very creation, is based on a simple Biblical story that is often read over with narrow, and superficial eyes. The forgoing story would no doubt have been passed down within the bloodlines of Solomon. The Davidic Kings, whom I am certain journeyed to find this place in which Solomon’s friend, King Hyrum visited in his 3 year journeys... I would be happy to discuss the evidences Hyrum brought back…

One of two Mayan Temples found in… Indonesia, archaeologist can’t deny, nor explain.

They claim is was built in the 1400’s

Tonatiuh the Aztec Sun God on a Hindu artifact? You tell me?


How many other cultures came to this land during the next 300 years is unknown, perhaps none, however according to the Aztec, Mayan, and some western tribes and according to the (controversial to some) text of the Mormon book we find that about 600 BC another people came to this land in at least 3 separate groups. If true, these people came for religious and physical freedoms, in fact according to their story, they were “brought” here…


According to the Legends of the Chinese, Emperor Shi Huang set sail in 219 BC to a place they apparently already knew as Fusang. The reason for this first voyage would lean towards religious purposes. A later expedition however in about 400 AD gives much more details and a description of a place that in my mind, can be none other than the Grand canyon. Interestingly enough of all the descriptions concerning the indigenous found to be living there, it is said they were a well disciplined people yet had no religion, and so they (the Chinese) taught them of Buddha to the point wherein it became well rooted. I find it ironic that the Chinese migrants who taught the indigenous of that day, were teaching the descendants of those who taught their own ancestors. It is said the indigenous were living abroad in well organised cites, and in large Caves within the Canyon, Imagine that...


It was in the last century BC wherein the shores of the Americas would begin to see the first wave of Europeans since the days of Solomon during the last days of the Roman Republic and the Indo-Greek Kings and as a result of Alexander the Greats campaigns in India. I am certain sensitive historic maps and records were discovered among the ancient royal people of the Queen Sheba, or should we just call her Maya? This seeming accumulation of information seems to have sparked a wave of expeditions to follow beginning as early as 100 BC. I am certain this information corroborated the existing information in the hands of the many European Royals.

Allow me now to veer lightly from the topic- Consider this silver coin found in India bearing the profile of what is believed to be a “100 BC local ruler wearing Roman-type helmet with bristles”. Are they kidding?

I don’t see an Indian wearing a Roman helmet, I see a
Mohawk, Mohican or Pawnee Indian.

Not much is known about the early colonization efforts of the Greek Colonies as it is only mentioned in a later record found on... once again, presumed hoax artifacts believed to be from 1000 AD. However it occurred during a period from 100 BC to about 300 AD and these colonies were presumed to have been overthrown by the Indigenous and run off, assimilated or annihilated. One might consider at this time… Just who were these Ancestral Pueblo people any way? It is however quite possible they are those who built the many named cities which appear in the old Latin Maps, the same maps that the academic world never address, and even those unnamed 7 cities around Copala. You can read more about this mythical lake Copala and the 7 Cities by clicking the Link found at the end of this part...


Now comes a famous British King of the Past, but before I give him a name, let me ask if you have ever heard of “ Recent Studies” Because Wiki sure quotes him a lot but I can never find his sources. When I do it amounts to nothing more than another guy often quoted by the name of Orthodox Belief. I am sorry, but I am going to go off into a tangent for a bit… not because I cannot control myself, but because we need to understand these two individuals often quoted in the works of those in the digital scholarly Pharisees pages of today- Mr, Wiki! with his buddies Recent Studies and good old Orthodox Belief… Well I would like to introduce them to a friend of mine as it appears they do not know him… His name is “Original Source” oh how I wish they could play nice…

Just one simple guy named King Arthur has received much attention on the all mighty and powerful pages of Wiki, but in the lengthy and largely useless article laden with footnotes at the end, we find 108 footnote resources. What this means is, no less than 100 (educated?) opinions. Keep in mind, if any of them have any credibility regarding the subject of Arthur, they would have all had to have read and studied the original source material! Why oh why, do they always have to rationalize simple meaning… telling us what the author actually meant? Have you ever noticed that according to today's scholarly writers that in past times writers of the ancient past never said what they meant nor meant what they said? Aren’t we lucky to have the scholars of today to tell us what they really meant…

King Arthur in the early 6th century was known for his traveling to a mysterious Island called Avalon, the place where his sword Excalibur was forged. The evidences are few, however other things lead to the possibility that Avalon and Aztlan are one and the same. It is said in the “Arthurian Legend” that after being wounded in a battle he was taken to Avalon to heal, later after his death he was taken there and buried… Of course no one seems to know where Avalon was other than a stab in the dark guess at the Canary Islands, but it was so much easier turning this Welsh History into a legend… and now, mythical status...

Needless to say, I now cannot look at the pictograph, and petroglyph of the Kings panel in Dry Fork Canyon near Vernal Utah without pondering the possibilities of whom it is that is entombed nearby…

I could be wrong, But I think Arthur might have found where
King Hyrum was going… If not, he certainly came very close…

 Roman Jews?

Now comes in 700 AD, the Roman Colonies. The majority of the evidence of this exploration or better yet migration and colonization, comes from a discovery that was made in 1924. It would seem the skeptics were a little slow in jumping all over this one as it was no doubt an authentic find with authentic artifacts. Do you have any idea what effort it would take, to create 31 lead artifacts, some of which were 90 lbs, out in the middle of the desert in 1924, headed up by a gravel pit worker, and the study it would have taken to create a story using authentic old Latin and Hebrew? AND THEN encase the objects in cliche of all things, (believed at the time to indicate great antiquity) in such a careful fashion that a team of archaeologists, who recovered a majority of the artifacts, would not notice? What was the motive? The very substance of cliche had been formally used as evidence of the great antiquity of anything found within it, and NEVER something made from historic times, of course until this discovery. NOW the evolutionists are admitting cliche can form very quickly… how convenient…

Notice the Latin words, and although I know most will not see it,
there is also Hindu origin words

Anyway, the story told upon the artifacts tells the story of Roman Colonies in 700 AD, coming to the place of Calalus (Mistranslation of Calicuas) which strangely enough is the very word used and found on the earliest known Latin Maps. It tells of their bringing the Toltec into submission, bondage and Captivity. Funny… why were the Spanish of the 16th century using old Latin maps? Did they speak Castilian or not? The Castilian language (Latin Based) came from those of the Castile Kingdom which came into existence about 1000 AD ending around 1300. These are the very people who were derived from those of Septimania of 500 to 700 AD after the Muslim conquest. Why is this important? These so called Spanish Maps of the New World, are laden with names associated with those of Septimania, and the old Latin language prior to what is considered Castilian and the Castilian influences.

None to my surprise, it was very clear in reading the many expedition documents starting with Columbus, and including Juan Ponce de Leon 1513, Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Friar de Niza, Antonio de Espejo many more and even Coronado, were ALL OBVIOUSLY looking for existence of PREVIOUS Castilian occupation! WHY?

One last little note for some who may see… When the Roman colonies arrived in 700 AD they were the typical Roman Catholic, but for some reason 300 years later after finally being expelled by the Indigenous peoples (being the Toltec this particular round) they returned to their homeland (except those who were had intermarried and remained) as Roman Jewish Catholics. Of course the papacy had to accept it, who was going to argue with the Royals? To this day we have in the world Roman Jewish Catholics. The question is, who did they meet here? And where did this Jewish twist come from? I think before it is all said and done, we may find that these people who they met and who taught them Jewish traditions are the true Ancestral Pueblo, or formerly known as Anasazi.


Well it didn’t end there… 170 years after the Roman Jews returned to their origins Prince Madoc of the Welsh History made his voyage to the Americas, but once again history in Wales has been converted to legend in America. It is unclear, by what has been written, if Madoc was even looking for the place the Roman colonies found, the former cities of the  Indo-Greeks who were here some 400 years prior.


Again those who control the people rose up against their own in 1300. We could talk about the Knights Templar who frequented this land, but I am pretty sure even though they knew where others were focused, that they had better things to do… I think some give them way to much credit in some things, and in other things not enough… Without explanation, I assure you they did NOT haul tons of treasure to this land, they did not come here to hide a cup, and they had no idea where the Ark of the Covenant was… lets not beat this dead horse any longer, it stopped looking like a horse when Orthodox and Hollywood took over…

The Spanish Conquest

A little over 400 years after Madoc, another attempt to conquer the indigenous peoples  and find the heart of the promised land and to satisfy the ever growing lust for Gold came- Columbus, followed shortly thereafter by Cortez and the ruthless Coronado. There is much more to the story of Columbus, he didn’t just wake up one day and decide he wanted to sail far into the unknown west to see if there was anything there. Columbus knew damned well the earth wasn’t flat. Columbus first went to the Royals of Portuguese, obviously he knew they had knowledge of this place and were part of the colonization of 700 AD to 1000 AD. A remnant of the Portuguese remained here and are a large part of the Melungeon Indian ancestry. The Melungeon were found in the areas of Tennessee, Virginia and Kentucky by the first Europeans of the 1500’s, Melungeons are known as a mixed race of European and Indigenous. When found it was clear the language they spoke was intertwined with Prtugese, and when asked of their origins they would answer with "Portageez."

Being turned down by the Portuguese, Columbus approaches the Royals of Spain, it would seem very clear that Spain had much information to support Columbus or at least to see that he wasn’t just heading west aimlessly to the Indies which they very well knew was east. It is suspected that Spain had quite a jump on the French, but it is clear in the French Lahontan’s long river expedition, that he at least knew of the existence of the target lake but apparently had no name to attribute to it. Lahontan never made it to the lake he pursued, turning back somewhere along the upper waters of the Missouri. Yet somehow the cartographer of the Moll Map still managed to capture the very shape and essence of the elusive lake Copala even though they never found it? these guys were good!... In the cartographer notes he states that the map was made from earlier drafts How early? It is interesting to note that in these droughts the elusive lake is shown with a primary river exiting and heading EAST into what is today's, Missouri river drainage. There is a group of people today that might find this extremely interesting, if they could just wrap there head around this, oh how this little clues tell the stories unknown...

Moll Map of Lahontons Journey aside the 33 million year old Lake Copala

The Unnamed Emperor

I am certain others have come to this land in ancient times that we do not know of. The latest of which you may not believe was a King and Emperor who came here himself in 1918. He seemed to have no trouble finding his way to a key location in the Uinta Basin, and even bought up much property. No one really knows exactly why he was hear, but it certainly was NOT to secure the wealth of the Rhoades mine as fantasized by one.. and was known to this man as chicken feed compared to what he was seemingly searching for. Circumstances overseas eventual required his attention to the degree that he had to abandon his efforts and his properties were eventually sold off by his representative with the last piece selling in 1943.

The Question

In all that I have written in this part 5, I have not really answered the question, “Why were they coming here?” Let me answer by saying that many but not all who came in the past knew this was the very place promised to the Israelites of the ancient Abrahamic covenant. As a result many have tried to obtain this land for themselves there are things here that are of ancient origin and of great archaeological value, what they did not understand however is that the promise to the Israelites carries a curse as well, “that who so ever shall posses this land shall be free from bondage and from captivity and from all other nations,  if they will but serve the God of the land, who is Jesus Christ,” otherwise they will come into bondage and captivity or when they are ripe in iniquities, they will be swept off. But lets just write that off as a mythical hoax and leave it to Recent Studies, Orthodox Belief and their new friend WIKI.

Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Emeralds from Columbia? Or Utah?

On April 25th A treasure trove of Emeralds along with other treasure is set to go to auction in New York. These Emeralds were recovered from the 1622 ship wreck Nuestra Senora de Atocha in the 1980's.

What if I told you they did not come from Columbia?

Emerals To Be Auctioned on 25th of April in New York VIDEO

One little secret never told however is that this shipwreck of 1622 was a little out of bounds from where it should have been when found, even with the hurricane winds it could not have ended up where it was... If the Acedemic version were true...

Also it was rumored until confirmed, that Mel Fish believed... No... He knew that a large portion if not all of the cargo of the Atocha came from the Uinta Mountains. This was confirmed when Mel Fisher not long after the discovery came to Utah and spent much time in 3 unknown areas of the Uintas of which I will keep to myself. His daughter later after his death spent much time looking in the same areas... Why?

One individual who was asked/hired to take Mel to certain places, when I asked him about this rumor, he interrupted me and said it ain't no rumor, Mel absolutely believed that because of a goat skin map that was found sealed in a cannon barrel with wax and other things found amongst the wreckage. " I saw it myself." Of the character of this individual and of whom I have known for about 16 years, if he told me the sky was pink with blue stripes, I don't know that I would bother looking to see if it were true...

I wonder what effect it would have on the sale of the Emeralds if those who own them, or even those considering buying them knew that the likelihood is, that these gems did NOT come from Columbia as everyone has always believed... what If I told you they more likely came from right here in our own Uinta Mountains? But where?.... Exactly? There is at least one confirmed tale of Emeralds being found in the Uintas... Is there another?

Espiritu Santo

About a month ago I was going through some of the details of the old maps used in the recreation of the Master map… there is one particular map which to my knowledge is still unpublished and I hope it remains that way, it was entrusted to me of which I have done my best to keep it from the general public. However there are a few who often help me by way of perspective in helping to resolve the mysteries of some of these maps. This particular map location or where it applied has remained unknown ever since it was acquired I believe in the 70’s.

Although this map is from the original, it has been altered, it contains all that is on the original map, but it has all been moved to different locations and is only shown for visual effect.

A few years ago, I pulled out the map once again and decided that due to certain details of the map it no doubt applied to a particular part in the Uintas. I did my best in identifying what I thought were certain feature such as drainage's, of which this map had many. The map was clearly made by a privateer and not a cartographer of some royal funded expedition…. I have come to notice after examining many maps that although a cartographer of the past is much better at capturing accuracy in a map and its features, a privateer, is much better at capturing noticeable geographic features and often in abundance far more so that an expedition assigned cartographer and in many ways, I think is more helpful in finding some location intended on the maps....

After labeling some of the drainage's according to my perspective I sent it to one individual whom I have always know had a great sense of the Geographic’s of the Uintas. He responded immediately telling me that I was close but incorrect, He then sent me his notations, and I began the meticulous process of visual comparing and validating every details found upon the map, and I am certain with few small exceptions, he hit the geographic nail on the head.

Several years past believing the map all along was dated 1884-88 until one day not a month ago, I decided to send a clip of the signature to another friend in California who has displayed his ability to recognize the old Spanish words, even when the handwriting is obscure… he Immediately sent me a response as to what he believed it to say, I must say, I could see at that point that he was right. But… there was a problem, the man who authored the map, Antonio de Espejo has quite a history, and seemed to fit the bill flawlessly except for one thing… This man lived from 1540 to 1585 (According to the Academic world) he was best know for his well documented expedition of 1582 to 1583 into what was at the time known as Nuevo Mexico, at this time I want to remind the reader that New Mexico was NOT the geographic boundaries you know today… It was for the most part, the south western states.

Seeing however this man lived in the 1500’s rather than the sought after time frame of the 1800’s, I thought how could this be… Unless… (The Lights came on) I immediately pulled up an image of the map and zoomed in on the date, and sure enough, what we had always believed was 1884, was 1584, But academics says he “reached San Bartolomé on September 10, 1583. His discoveries probably did more to stimulate the settlement of New Mexico and the exploitation of its mineral resources than did those of any other of the early explorers. He started back to Spain to urge the settlement of New Mexico but became ill at Havana, Cuba, where he died in 1585.”

Well, if this is the case. How did he sign a map in 1588? I have yet to find a comparable signature… but I don’t think I need to go that far… Let it suffice that all efforts so far to discover the source information of Espejo dying in 1585 failed.

( Added Note: Why would Espejo go "Back" to Spain when he had a ranch in Chihuahua? Not to mention at the time, he and his brother were wanted for murder, his brother had already been captured.)

These kinds of conflicts come up often in our histories and I have found it is often due to lazy research… simply quote the previous writer and continue on…  the only way to find the truth behind this is to follow the bibliography. To keep this segment short, I assure you the man who signed this document was not in Havana at that time and certainly did not die there.

Should I decide it is necessary to dig into this further… I’ll let you know the results. One might ponder the implications at this point that we now have very good documented evidence that the Spaniards were mining in the Uinta mountains as early as 1584, with his expeditions documents of 1583 clearly making mention of himself and 8 others disappearing for a time to travel North in search of the elusive Lake Copala.

After this new discovery of date conflicts, I decided to visit a particular site found upon the map and quite frankly the only one we could reach due to… pfft…. Snow…  The target or symbol we was aiming for on the map is one we have rarely seen, yet on this map there are two and according to 3 sources, of which I cannot verify any of the three’s sources, it is said that the symbol means a Vault, at this point I can only take their word for it.

The Target

A colleague visited the site just a few days ago looking for signs of… anything, and although he sent me some photos of which included a certain tree, I did not take it serious until I seen it for myself and quite frankly, I do not know what to make of it, other than I know it is an intentional manipulation of the tree as evidenced by the thin blade sword or thin blade broad axe that is quite evident was used in the manipulations.  

The old tree along the old trail
Photo by Tracy Gardner

In 30 years I have only seen one other tree such as this that appears to be created for the same reasons or purpose. Perhaps the answer to it’s intended purpose lies within the site found 30 years prior. Strangely enough it also has to do with a suspect Vault, something ascertained not from an old map, but the Native Glyphs found at the site and intertwined with the Spanish evidence, making it possible to find the tree which was badly over grown making it near impossible to see, is was the glyphs that caused me to part the branches when I discovered its manipulation. The following photo was taken after the branches had been pruned so as to see the intended manipulation from afar.

Although still difficult to see due to growth of the tree it is the same manipulation
of the center being cut off and grooming two branches opposite each other
to grow with the appearance of a goal post.
At one time, both trees would have been very visible at a fair distance…

Discovery of the tree associated with the map has now caused me to rethink a 30 years old discovery and a return trip to the first discovery is without a doubt in the making. Return trips to the second tree is a given.

The glyphs which enabled me to find the tree and which told me
there is a tree to look for…

If any of you have any “real” ideas as to the goal post tree’s  potential purpose, please feel free to contact me at tuscoro@gmail.com. I will say that there was a specific location we were trying to locate, but as a result it seems to have created more questions than answers, lets face the facts, what bona fied information do we have that gives credibility to the above symbol as to having the meaning of vault? Is it possible that it could mean camp site? Because this is what we believe we found at the location, is it possible that a camp site was set up at the vault site and that the symbol does indeed mean vault? If so, whose vault? The 1584 expeditions vault of their own making? Perhaps earlier expedition of the Castilians (Those of Septimania of Eastern Spain) which few even know came to this very place from 700 to 1000 AD…they themselves simply following a much older trail…  is the presumed vault of an even more ancient people?

Did anyone notice the word Castilian on the 1584-88 map?
Why is it there?

The term Castilian only survived in 1584 as a language spoken by the Spaniard, the Kingdom of Castile existed between 1065 until 1230 AD. The word itself came into existence in the Spanish language as early as 800 AD among those of the people of Septimania, and are those of which the Castilian people and Kingdom of Castile derive.

It is VERY clear in the many expedition documents from Columbus to Antonio de Espejo and beyond, that these people who are supposed to be the first Europeans to arrive on the continent were CLEARLY looking for earlier evidences of Castilians… The skeptics might want to rethink the validity of the Tucson Lead artifacts discovered in 1927. These artifacts tell the tale of Roman Colonies coming to the Americas as early as 100 BC! And a second colonization in 700 AD which are those of Castile and/or Septimania (Eastern Spain) Because… the evidences are growing in favor of the lead artifacts authenticity. But this is another chapter…

The most amazing thing I have found, although I am certain you will not see it, and this  article is but a drop in the bucket, is that in all the broad topics of my research of near 30 years… I have discovered that all of it is connected… all the way back "the beginning" and that each seemingly different topic, is as a result of some earlier time or event…