Originally Posted January 2018
Antonio de Espejo 1584
A Small piece of the map
Antonio (Hurtado de Mendoza?) de Espejo
was born in
Antonio de Espejo born in Spain presumably
to a wealthy family, having come from a wealthy family it is without doubt he
and his brother with families came to the Americas without issue but clearly
was a matter of choice for some purpose other than becoming cattle ranchers in
the unknown wild or soldiers of fortune in such a hostile place. It is my
estimation that something else swayed the two brother to come to the
In 1581 some event involving a ranch hand
occurred in which Antonio and his brother were accused of murder, there is no
record as of yet as to what this was all about, but it is said his brother was
arrested and Antonio fled North the outer most outpost of New Spain at the time
being Santa Barbara in Chihuahua. If this accusation were true, why would
Antonio rather than lie low somewhere, begin writing letters to the King of
Spain in an attempt to establish a colony or Land Grant in the Northerly most
parts of the most hostile regions of
WHILE the viceroy was discussing an
Through the efforts of the friar a license was secured
from Captain Juan Ontiveras, alcalde mayor of Cuatro Cienegas, a settlement
seventy leagues east of
Now understanding that by embarking upon an expedition of any kind without license could get you arrested or killed simply because it was considered as trespass on property claimed for the crown, it is clear to me that Espejo took advantage of this opportunity bypassing the process of obtaining a license himself, especially with an open accusation of him as a murderer. Espejo was on a quest, what was it he was looking for? Clearly throughout the narrative of Espejo his attention is not on the presumed “missing” friars, as you read through his narrative it is clear he is looking for previous occupation of Castilian. At every opportunity he was setting off further and further from the objective. I have noticed this constant making notation of Castilian Grapes, Castilian Onions, Walnuts Etc.. and such not only in Espejo’s expedition narrative but by others as well, I think these people knew good and well their ancestors had been there before.
Espejo even after reaching the “avowed purpose of the expedition” learning of the demise of the friars, pushed even further, at this point the majority were ready to return to Nueva Vizcaya. From the transcribers of the report of the Viceroy to the King we find…
After reaching “the borders of the province of the Tiguas, and learned that Fathers Lopez and Rodriguez had been killed at Puaray.
The avowed purpose of the expedition had
now been accomplished, but Espejo, seconded by Father Beltran, decided to
explore the country before returning. Going two days east with two companions,
to the province of the Maguas, adjacent to the buffalo country, Espejo learned
that there Father
Returning to the Tiguas, the whole party
went six leagues to the Quires, and then visited Sia, fourteen leagues to the
northwest, and the Emeges (Jemez), six leagues further north-west. Turning
southwest, they now went to
His party being increased by another of Espejo's men, Fray Beltran now returned to San Bartolome; but Espejo, bent on further explorations, turned east again and ascended the Rio Grande to the Quires. Going east from there Six leagues, he visited the Ubates, and found mineral prospects near by. One day from the Ubates he visited the Tanos pueblos, who would neither admit him nor give him food. In view of this hostility and of the smallness of his party, Espejo now set out for home, but by a different route”
It is said that Espejo did not find the lake, and I would agree, as it had been gone for at least 700 years, but how did he know that? however I am certain that Espejo having been one of the first Europeans to return to this area since the days of his ancestors, could see plainly the evidence of the lake he sought after, evidence that was much more obvious 480 years ago and is still visible today though more so obscured, yet evidence of which today is drowned in an extremely flawed dating system so that you would not consider...
This is NOT
I personally don’t think Espejo went west
for 45 leagues as he said he did, had he done so there is no doubt he would
have mentioned the Grand Canyon which he no doubt would have encountered. I am
certain he did however head North in search of the
Apparently Espejo continues "seeking establishing a colony" in the North by Land Grant, which I am sure was a facade, it is uncertain as to the whether the King responded to his letters but it would be my guess according to later documentation that he either got that permission in 1584 or he just went anyway, but apparently this slipped past the historians and reasonably so, but based on what information would they say he was heading back to Spain and died in Cuba in 1585? I have not found it...
Antonio de Espejo was off again, and this
time it would be 4 years before his return, or at least that was the plan, but
I don’t think that worked out so well because apparently no one told the story,
as it would seem it was easier to have him die in
If you were to read Antonio’s narrative, and those of the earliest expeditions known, you will notice that not only do they continuously point out finding Castilian this and Castilian that, but they always make reference to mines they had heard about, never do the documents say they set out to “Establish” or create mines, it is always a reference to what apparently were existing mines, whose mines? Were these mines of the indigenous? Or mines of the predecessors from 500 years prior? Why all the references to apparently former Castilian s?
Now as you may or may not know, many of the projects in which I work on, have what I call an originator, this is the person who brought me the story or the document, because of this, I cannot disclose the nitty gritty details, as the originator is my friend and colleague, and to be honest, I don’t think he agrees with me on this and that’s ok. My reasons for writing about this particular incident is that even if we cannot verify the things indicated on the document, it is still considered the best and earliest evidence we have of Spanish expeditions into the Uinta mountains, and if we can pull all the other implications together from other sources or find one of the sites indicated on the map, we could also prove even earlier occupation of those who preceded the Spanish at one time of 775 AD to 1050 AD and quite possibly a much earlier migration occurring at 100 BC.
According to the originator of this document, it was given to him after getting to know a co-worker who was Apache, possible Apache/Navajo, he told him that this map with others, was taken from the Spaniards that his grandfathers had killed long ago near the four corners area. As it would seem, Espejo’s expedition of 1584 to 1588 ended somewhere on their return trip to Mexico, Unfortunately Antonio de Espejo and his men, never made it back, Antonio without a doubt did not die in Cuba and likely died the same year in which his map was dated. I personally don’t have any question as to the correct analysis of the map bearing Antonio de Espejo’s signature as I trusted it to one of the sharpest of individuals I know with a great knowledge of the Uinta Geography. Upon this map which is a "Land Grant area" which I am certain he intended to acquire, which covers some 144,000 acres in a most interesting place in the Uintas. There are 15 Mines, two of which are specifically marked as “Castilian”, 3 other things marked on the map are presumed armor cache sites, and 2 presumed vaults. Was this area a patrimony once occupied by his ancestors?
I feel this is one of the most important
projects that we have pertaining to early
I am looking for a few rare types of individuals to assist, who can legitimately dedicate the time to evaluate this project tracing over the steps I have already taken, I promise you, you will be overwhelmed yet fascinated by what has actually has taken place already. This is not for the casual researcher or treasure hunter, you need time, the ability to go near at the drop of a hat, a computer, not cell phone, advanced photo programs and advance experience with Google Earth, USGS Maps etc… and to provide financial support.
The prize at the end? Well… the knowledge
of it brought to the public, however lets not kid ourselves… Are we to believe
that Antonio and his crew are responsible for 15 mines, 3 Armor Caches, and two
vaults, one of which indicates that something was left behind, and all in 4
years?… What did Antonio find? What was he carrying back to
So far, the lakes and drainages and the map have been verified, some side drainages are still in question, both Vault locations are known but have not been verified, one has a second possibility, rumor has it that it is an old Spanish Mine. 5 of the 15 mines indicated on map have been identified and certain land marks identified. One presumed Armor cache locations found some years ago, was described as a hole in the ground noticed by a Native surveyor as he was surveying for a fence, in looking down in the hole he described it as being full of old Spanish looking armor, small logs were placed over the hole and rocks piled on top of it.
There is so much more I wish I could show and tell, however this is without a doubt one of the most important projects I have been a part of, the evidence is profound. The primary technology that would accelerate this project is a Magnetometer, preferably on a drone.
Thank you to those who have donated...